12 вариаций на тему «See the Conquering Hero Comes» из оратории Генделя «Иуда Маккавей» для фортепиано и виолончели, WoO.45

Maurice Gendron, виолончель)
Jean Francaix, фортепиано

Всего Бетховен написал около 70 циклов вариаций. Большинство ранних вариаций основаны на чужих темах и не получили опусов, которые композитор присваивал лишь произведениям, которые считал существенными и важными.

В мае-июле 1796 года Бетховен находился в Берлине в рамках концертного тура, где сочинил, или, во всяком случае, начал несколько важных произведений, включая виолончельную сонату Op.5 и Вариации для виолончели и фортепиано Соль мажор на тему "See the conqu'ring hero comes" из оратории Генделя "Иуда Маккавей" WoO 45. Вариации были посвящены княгине Лихновской (Christiane von Lichnowsky), жене князя Карла Лихновского, одного из наиболее значительных венских покровителей композитора, в доме которого он жил в 1793-1795 годах.


The Variations, WoO 45, were published in 1797 by Artaria in Vienna. As Handel's oratorios were not performed in Vienna at this time, it is likely that the suggestion of the theme came from Baron Gottfried van Swieten (1733-1803), a champion of the works of both Bach and Handel and one of Beethoven's early patrons.

The variations of WoO 45 are in the decorative, high-Classical style and maintain the harmonic movement of the theme. We find none of the probing of tonal relationships as in the Variations in F major, Op. 34, and none of the multiplicity of material to be varied as in the Variations in E flat, Op. 35. What we do find is a virtuosity and control unparalleled in Beethoven's earlier works. Also, the variations are notable in that Beethoven had few examples on which to model his compositions for the unusual combination of cello and piano.

Handel's theme is rounded binary structure with a central section that emphasizes the relative minor, E minor, a harmony Beethoven stresses from the first variation. The cello makes its first appearance in the second variation, exaggerating the leaps in the theme over a repeated-note accompaniment in the piano. Leaps are the salient feature of the cello part in Variation No. 3; the busy piano part fills any and all melodic gaps created by the cello. Variation No. 4, the first of the two minor variations, returns to a more recognizable form of the theme while probing the pathetic possibilities of the minor mode. In the fifth and sixth variations, Beethoven divides material between the two instruments, perhaps preparing for the very active cello part of Variation No. 7. The shape of the theme all but disappears in No. 8, the second minor variation, in which phrase lengths are delineated by rising and falling scales in the piano. After a calm, contrasting ninth variation that reduces the theme to its bare bones, an agitated tenth variation erupts that features a soaring, cello part. The 11th variation is technically difficult and highly ornamental, and is followed by a meter change to 3/8, which drastically alters the rhythmic aspects of the theme. ~ John Palmer, Rovi