15. Beethoven's studies in Vienna

JOSEPH HAYDN (1732-1809) Engraving by Johann Ernst Mansfeld Beethoven had obtained permission to go to Vienna in order to become a pupil of Haydn. He immediately began his study under the great master--the greatest since Mozart's death--and remained his student until 1794, the time of Haydn's trip to London. ( Mozart Museum, Salzburg)

"TROIS SONATES POUR LE CLAVECIN," OPUS 2 Title page with dedication to Haydn The three sonatas, which were published by Artaria in Vienna in 1796, are dedicated to his great teacher, in gratitude. (van Hoboken, Ascona)

JOHANN GEORG ALBRECHTSBERGER (1736-1809) Oil painting The court organist and director of the orchestra at St. Stephan, Albrechtsberger was also a distinguished composer and theorist. He became Beethoven's counterpoint teacher when Haydn went to London in 1794, and taught him until May, 1795. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)

ANTON SALIERI (1750-1825) Oil painting Salieri, director of the court orchestra and a skillful composer, had been a resident of Vienna since 1766. From 1793 to 1802 Beethoven studied stage music composition with him and later occasionally asked his advice. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)

JOHANN SCHENK (1754-1836) Oil painting Beethoven tried to broaden his knowledge of theory by studying with Schenk, a very popular operatic composer in Vienna. Both he and Schenk kept the teacher-pupil relationship confidential. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)

EMANUEL ALOIS FÖRSTER (1748-1823) Lithograph by Joseph Teltscher Förster, an esteemed composer and a fine teacher, particularly of counterpoint, received Beethoven with great friendliness and gave him good advice, which later proved beneficial to his composition of quartets. ( Historical Museum of the City of Vienna)

"EXERCISE IN COUNTERPOINT FOR TWO PARTS WITH SYNCOPATION" Page from a Beethoven study book Notice the remarks by Beethoven's hand: "If a measure with no ties occurs it may be filled with un-tied half-beats."--At the end of the page: "Fifth species of counterpoint. Contrapunctum floridum, the ornamented counterpoint, since even at that time embellishment, flowing movements, and other varieties of the species occurred." In the fourth example he called the third measure "bad" with reference to open fifths lagging behind. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)

COPY OF THE FUGUE IN B MINOR FROM JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH'S "WELL TEMPERED KEYBOARD" ARRANGED FOR STRING QUARTET Autograph by Ludwig van Beethoven Undoubtedly an exercise from Beethoven's study period. ( Society of Friends of Music, Vienna)