Соната для фортепиано №5 c-moll Op. 10 №1

Соната входит в Opus 10 под №1, была написана Бетховеном в 1795—1797 годах и посвящена графине Анне Маргарите фон Браун (Anna Margarete von Browne).

Эта соната, одно из ранних сочинений Бетховена, своей энергетикой предвосхищающее его более известные произведения в до-миноре - Патетическую сонату и Пятую симфонию.

В сонате три части:
1. Allegro molto e con brio
2. Adagio molto
3. Prestissimo

(Вильгельм Кемпф)

 

(Гленн Гульд)

 

Эта соната занимает особое место среди ранних сонат Бетховена. Она как бы обобщает достиже­ния первой группы сонат будучи - достаточно монуметальной и вместе с тем лаконичной. Формы ее очень сжаты, но одновременно достигнута боль­шая сила выражения (об особых качествах фина­ла ниже). Пятая соната вызвала грубые нападки современной музыкальной критики, которая обви­нила композитора в… нагромождении идей, в «не­ясной искусственности» или «искусственной неясности». Но подобная «неясность» явилась на деле лишь прояснением бетховенской индивидуальности. Характерно и то, что, в отличие от предыдущих сонат, эта имеет всего три части. Некоторые иссле­дователи усматривали в четырёхчастности ранних бетховенских сонат прежде всего и только прогрес­сивно новаторскую монументализацию сонатной формы. Но дело обстояло сложнее. Действительно начав таком монументализацией, Бетховен в даль­нейшем возвращается (на новой основе) к трехчастности, и многие лучшие, наиболее содержа­тельные и драматичные свои сонаты пишет в трех частях, Соната с-moll ор. 10 - первый опыт такой монументальной лаконичной трехчастности.

(Юрий Кремлев. Фортепианные сонаты Бетховена)

 

The first movement, in sonata form, opens energetically with contrasting loud and soft phrases. The theme is highly angular, consisting of rising dotted quaver arpeggios. A 24-bar modulating passage provides a quiet contrast before arriving at the second theme in E-flat, which is accompanied by an Alberti bass. In the recapitulation, the second theme is initially in F major before returning to C minor.

The second movement is a lyrical Adagio with many embellishments. It is in A-B-A-B or "sonatina" form (there is no development section, only a single bar of a rolled V7 chord leading back to the tonic key); an apparent third appearance of the main theme turns into a coda, which slowly fades to a final perfect cadence.

The third movement is a highly nervous piece in sonata form, making heavy use of a figure of five eighth notes. The short development section contains an unmistakable foreshadow of the theme from Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. The coda slows the tempo down, leading to a final outburst which fades to a quiet but agitated C major.

 

Beethoven began the other two sonatas comprising the Op. 10 group in 1796, but may have started this work toward the end of 1795. Marked Allegro molto e con brio the first movement opens with a probing theme, based on a C minor chord, which introduces a questing, questioning mood, not unlike the opening of the "Pathetique" Sonata. Here, however, the initial tempo is brisk and the inital utterance appears more direct. However, as the musical discourse unfolds, the straightforward beginning yields to unexpected developments. For example, in the first theme group, Beethoven introduces an interesting element: a mysterious descending phrase bringing what seems as both consolation and triumph. After the initial material is restated, certain differences become apparent: for instance, the "question" phrase is not followed by an "answer," this absence introducing a general feeling of ambiguity and uncertainty. The development section is unusual, for, despite some expansion of previously stated themes, most of the music here is new, thereby violating the conventional rules of sonata form. The recapitulation presents an abridgement of the exposition and an effective transformation of the second theme. In the second movement (Adagio molto), one hears two themes, the first a flowing melody that becomes inwardly agitated as it rises, and the latter a somewhat hesitant invention that seems to seek serenity, but is hampered at times by figurations played by the left hand. The stormy transition separating the two themes is quite interesting -- seemingly a harbinger of darkness that never arrives. After the reappearance of the thematic material, in slightly altered form, there is a coda based on the opening melody. The finale is a vibrant Prestissimo, essentially driven by a mood of typical Beethovenian anxiety yearning for joy. This movement's first theme is a decidedly ominous six-note figure, possibly a precursor to the famous "fate" motto of the Fifth Symphony. A variant of the first, the second theme is nevertheless its opposite in effect, expressing a spirit of joy and humor. A brief development section leads to a recapitulation, and the movement is completed by a coda.

(Robert Cummings, Rovi)